Alignment refers to how the text is to be displayed. Usually, this is done left to right. It also how each block of text will line up with others. Alignment is usually done employing a grid. The grid is a set of vertical and horizontal lines that are used to strengthen the structure of a web page.

Proximity helps keep related elements closer with enough white space between them to make it easier to read. For example, this article would be quite daunting as a solid block of text but the white spaces between paragraphs significantly improve its readability.

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